TKD Cable encyclopedia

Y = Polyvinyl chloride     
2Y = Polyethylene 
02Y = Polyethylene, chemically foamed  
02YS = Polyethylen, physically foamed with skin 
9Y = Polypropylene  
11Y = Polyurethane 
12Y = TPE (polyether-ester based)
14Y = Thermoplastic elastomer   
H = Thermoplastic elastomer halogen-free 
LS = Conductive layer   
X = Cross-linked  
C = Braided shielding  
D = Twist - Shielding 
F = Foil  /  Vl = Fleece tape 
St = Static screen (metallised composite film/metal foil etc.) 
Li = Strand 
CuLi =  Copper strand 
CuDr =  Copper wire
B =  Coverage (with regards to braiding or twist-shielding)   
Tg-Garn =  Carrier yarn (for filler, e.g. EC-9 or EC-13), see also cable catalogue --> technical guidelines --> codes

Abrasion resistance is an important criterion for the life-cycle of a cable. The abrasion is specified as A [mm³]. Test procedure: The sample is stringed with a specified downforce onto a rotating roller covered with abrasive paper. The test procedure covers approximately 40m. The abrasive waste (weight loss) is measured and the result is declared as loss in volume [mm³].  

Alternating current

Especially for conveyor cables and drag chain cables the operation speed in m/sec is an important parameter. The customers receive the information about the performance capability of the cable in (G) related to the gravitational acceleration. G can be converted into m/sec².    

The ACR value states the relation between near end crosstalk and the attenuation of a specific frequency. The distance of the wanted signal to the interfering signal is an important factor for the quality of transmission . It is important that the generated interfering signal of the crosstalk attenuation is smaller by a certain value to be able to guarantee a good transmission. This value is the difference between the crosstalk attenuation and the attenuation of the line. The interfering signal arises from crosstalk of adjacent cables and EMC influences from the outside. For shielded cable the external influence is very small and can be neglected but unshielded cable can be negatively influenced by adjacent signal cables and additionally influence the ACR negatively.         

If two cable elements must be separated mechanically then a force needs to be applied onto the defined connection length, which can be measured. This measured force is specified in N/100mm and is called adhesion value.

Spanish Association for Standardisation and Certification

Informal name of a digital audio standard created by AES (Audio Engineering Society) and EBU (European Broadcasting Union) organisations. This standard defines the transmission characteristics of digital signals to simplify the communication between equipments.

The ageing of cables depends on various factors - temperature - microorganisms - level of the used voltage. The ageing process related to electrical values is important especially for coaxial cable. The corrosion of the braiding caused by the softening agents from the PVC mixture as well as the water vapour is of great importance. The increase in damping is noticeable by frequencies > 1000 MHz.

The inside of the dielectric must contain a substance that is capable of migration. For example water molecules, which penetrate the insulation and accumulate in a tree-shaped structure (water trees).

Micro partial discharge (electrical treeing) occurring by inhomogeneous insulations (hollows or cavity). The result is a constant material erosion.

Aluminium alloy (AlMgSi) for conductors with higher mechanical use (higher tensile strength). Aldrey is often used for overhead cables.

Several years ago the raw material situation forced the cable industry to replace copper with aluminium. If copper wire is replaced by an equivalent aluminium wire, it reduces the weight by half, even with a 1.6 fold cross-section. The larger cross-section requires more material for all subsequent material elements like sheathing and protective sheathing. Aluminium, as conductor material for cables, conforms to DIN 40501. Its importance as a  conductor material in electrical engineering is second place after copper and mainly used for overhead lines due to its low weight.

Amorphous is at a microscopic level the irregular arrangement of molecules in chemical substances. Plastics are called amorphous (Greek: without structure), whose molecules are not arranged in a regular crystal lattice pattern compared to crystalline. 

American National Standards Institute. Committee of the USA which develops standards and compares to the German DIN standards.

Metal sleeve made of tapes or wires, which serve as a protection of the cable for external mechanical use.

The Arrhenius equation defines that if the temperature increases by 8-10 Kelvin the ageing speed doubles. Impact on the life-cycle includes: - water treeing - thermal decomposition - migration - electrical ageing - chemical ageing.

Actuator Sensor Interface is an industrial networking solution, specially designed for information exchange of sensors and actuators using an unshielded single 2-conductor cable for the simultaneous transmission of signal and supply energy. ASI does not connect controllers with each other but couples sensors and actuators to Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), Numerical Controllers (NC) and PCs.

American Society for Testing and Materials (USA), international standards organisation.

Asynchronous Transfer Modus, asynchronuos transmission mode. Transmission standard, which forms the basis for ISDN and Backbone networks. It encodes data into small fixed-sized cells and sends to the receiver via switch-networking.

Attenuation is the transmission loss during transmission within media through emitting electrical power as every conductor acts as transmitting antenna. The smaller the value the better (reduction of the signal amplitude). The attenuation increases as frequency and cable length increase. Thus resulting in a lower signal level.

American Wire Gauge is a coding for the wire diameter and is mainly used in North-America. It marks the electrical cables made of strand and solid wire and is used in electrical engineering to describe the cross-section of wires. The smaller the AWG number, the greater the conductor cross-section.

Baking lacquer is applied repeatedly onto the same wire just like two-layer-lacquer-wires, whereas the first coating is the insulation layer and the top layer (baking lacquer layer) is thermoplastic. Through that a bonding of the wound coil takes place and additional soaking of the coil is not needed.       

The bandwidth is the range of frequency of a fibre optic cable, which can be transmitted in a certain time. The wider the bandwidth the more data can be transmitted. The transmitting speed depends on the bandwidth of the entire network.

Conductor made of metal, where the wire or the single wires are not coated with an additional metal (surface finishing).

British Approvals Service for Cables (Certification Authority of Great Britain and Ireland)

It is the unit of symbol rate for the transmission of messages. Per symbol rate one second.

Abbreviation of broadband communication cable. Transfer of information via a cable system.

Ten decibel = 1 BEL. Bel is like decibel a non-dimensional numerical ratio and is the common measuring unit for the attenuation of high frequency engineering.

Electrical equipment is much more sensitive towards interfering influences and the numbers of equipment, which create electrical fields is currently on the rise. Because of this it has become necessary to shield the interfering equipment related to radiation of electrical fields. A metallic shield is used, which can act as braiding as well as metal foil. Disturbing pulses from the outside to the inside and reverse can be avoided by using braiding.

Braided sheath made of metallic or non-metallic material.

A measure for the braiding quality.

The electrical engineering defines the breakdown voltage as the required voltage so that electricity flows through an insulation onto a metallic conductor. The result is an electrical puncture. 

The breaking load is the product of nominal cross-section and tensile strength. 

The breaking strain is a material parameter, which gives the remaining elongation of the sample after breakage related to the starting measured length. During bending of a cable the surface of insulation and sheathings are stretched. Through improper bending over the length of the own diameter the stretching in the outer phase is not more than 50% and is way below the allowed minimum stretching of e.g. PVC. PUR has a breaking strain of approximately 500% !   

A bus is a sum of a multitude of parallel cables onto which multiple function units or components of a computer are connected to. Through the use of bus technology it is possible to reduce costs of approximately 40% during cabling, commissioning and maintenance compared to conventional technology.

Butyl rubber is a synthetic rubber manufactured copolymer made of isobutylene and butadiene or isoprene. It displays a great resistant to ageing and chemicals and low gas penetration.

Unit of conductor, insulation and if required core, shielding and sheathing.

The cable drag chain is a component part (component parts made of interlinked hinged components) for engineering. The flexible cable guides or protects pneumatic or hydraulic elements. Such cables are  connected to a machine part, which is moved backwards and forwards. Without such a guidance the cable would be destroyed very quickly, as it ensures that the allowed minimum bending radius is kept.     

Woven tubular device, which is placed onto a cable. Its diameter decreases by pulling and grips the cable tightly.

Earthed metallic sheathing to reduce the electric fields onto the inside of the cable and/or to protect the cable from outside electrical influences. Note: Metallic sheathings foils, braiding, reinforcement elements and earthed concentric conductors can also act as shields.

Cable tenders are an alternative to the drag chain equipment. Suitable for speeds up to 300m/min - gentle cable guidance - low space requirement - no cable sagging - only half of the cable length is required. Application areas: Trolley power supply, shelf stacking device, container crane, etc. Next to electrical cables it is possible to place hoses (water, compressed air, oxygen, fuel gases, etc). Cables up to 1000V.

Cable trolleys are used as a power supply for mobile end users to supply flexible energy and control cables. The advantage of a cable trolley is that multiple control cables and fibre optic cables can be carried along next to a power supply line. Hoses for gaseous and liquid media can be added. Application area: trolley power supply, shelf stacking devices, container crane, harbours, steel plant, open-cast mining, theatres, etc. It is possible to place hoses (water, compressed air, oxygen, fuel gases, etc) next to electrical cables. 

Cable with a concentric conductor intended as neutral conductor.

Capacity is a measure of signal transmission. High capacity, for example, can change the incoming signal in a way that will result in an error message at the cable end.

Abbreviation for Community Antenna Television. CATV-cable mainly serves television distribution. The cable can also be used for transmissions up to 1 gigahertz.

Committee for Electrotechnical Belgium Community (Certification Authority of Belgium)

Canadian Electrical Code. Abbreviation for the Canadian version of the National Electrical Code (NEC).

Abbreviation of Commission on the Rules for the Approval of the Electrical Equipment for Europe

Comité Européen de Normalisation Électrotechnique, European Committee for Electrical Standardisation

The impedance is a size indication which states the relationship of electric to magnetic waves of a data cable. The characteristic impedance is for the compatibility of single components of a data transmission system of crucial importance.

Chloroprene rubber is a synthetic plastic manufactured through polymerisation of chloroprene. Resistant to solvents, with very good mechanical strength properties, it is  flame-resistant and acts as thermal insulation. It is a high grade rubber cable and very expensive. 

Stranded conductor, whose single wires are arranged helically, randomly and in the same direction and lay length.

Stranded conductor where the single wires are helically wound in one or more separated concentric layers with changing direction of lay.

Chlorinated polyethylene: elastomeric sheathing material, ozone resistant.

CMX is a type of generic term of communication cable according to UL 444.

Is the abbreviation of cyanides. Cyanides are salts and other compounds of prussic acid. PUR results, for example, from the polyaddition reaction of Diolen or Polyolen with polyisocyanates.

Coating is a primary plastic layer, which is directly applied onto the core glass of the fibre optic cable. It serves as a basic mechanical protective layer.

Coaxial cable consists of a neutral conductor and electrical conducting shielding sleeve, the braiding (second current path). The definition coaxial means that the axis of the inner conductor is in line with the axis of the shielding sleeve.

Coaxial cable with tinned copper braiding as outer conductor in new condition shows a 15-20% higher attenuation than bare braiding but has a more stabile attenuation behaviour. Coaxial cable with silvered copper braiding in new condition has the same attenuation behaviour as cables with bare braiding. In its long-term behaviour it can be evaluated equal to cable with tinned braiding.  

Abbreviation CTI. The determined comparable figure of the tracking by DIN/IEC is the numerical value of the highest voltage in volts, where a material withstands 50 droppings with a defined testing solution without tracking.

Stranded conductor, where the cavities between the single wires are reduced through mechanical pressing or pulling or through selected choice of the profile or the arrangement of wires.

Conductor enclosing in a concentric manner one or more insulated conductors.

Concentric conductor intended as neutral conductor.

Element of a multiple conductor consisting of a group of concentric wires.

Possesses a uniform diameter. The electrical properties of concentric cable is manufacturable with tight tolerances and smallest wall thicknesses are possible.

Conducting parts of an electrical cable consisting of one or more single wires.

Value calculated from conductor resistance and a specific defined conductance (e.g. 58.5 Fm/mm² DIN 72551 T6) Aconductor... Conductor diameter / d... diameter of the single wire / n… amount of single wires.

Conductor layers are used to reduce microphony attenuation as a result of cable movements (friction plastic/conductor material). A thin and easily removable layer of conductive plastic is applied onto the insulation (extrusion: solidly overmoulded with talcum) This layer is mechanically or electrically connected with the D or C shielding. 

Multi-wire cable for the transmission of control, measuring and display signals in electrical installations.

Insulated conductor in an energy cable, which is intended to transfer signals.

Electrolytic manufactured conductor material with a purity grade of 99.9%. Symbol of Copper is Cu, special form is OF Cu.

Dwire = Dstrand + 2 x Wd-norm + Dtol + Dextra:   Dwire = diameter wire[mm]  /  Dstrand = diameter strand  [mm]  /  Wd-norm = wall thickness, through standard or customer wish determined [mm]  /  Dtol = tolerance of the diameter of production [mm]  /  Dextra = Extra, e.g. chocking strand, required wall thickness for manufacturing purposes.

Core filler is used as a core element or as a wire replacement incorporated into the stranding structure. The core filler supports the wire of the stranding to achieve a round stranding construction.

Foreign layers are evaporated through oxidation on the insulation surface. The surface oxidation of the plastic increases the wettability and stickiness of the colour. The corona treatment differentiates itself from the electrical short-circuit by creating a discharge spark that is quickly extinguished. This restriction allows the spatial even spreading of the discharge over the complete discharge electrode. It prevents local over-heating and damage to the cable insulation. The cable is exposed to the discharge for only 1/100 – 1/10 seconds. Even thin cable insulations are solely modified on its surface. The oxygen concentration is only measurable up to a depth of approx. 5nm (8 atomic layers). The background is that cable insulations must display an outer surface energy of a minimum of 38nM/m to guarantee the required colour adhesion. Polyvinyl chloride achieves this requirement with 39 nM/m, Polyethylene with 30 nM/m is rather difficult wettable and in addition is non-polar. For the printing of polyolefines a corona treatment is always required. This ensures that the printing colour is not rejected by the material. All PE, PP, TPE-O belong to the group of polyolefines.

Metal sheathing with ring or helical corrugation.

Metallic sheathing with ring or helical corrugations.

The coupling resistance is a parameter to determine the shielding of cables. It is a unit for the quality of shielding and defines the relation of the voltage along the shielding of the disturbed system to the current of the interfering system. The size and the frequency response of the coupling resistance depends on the structure of the shielding. For DC current and low frequencies the transfer impedance is identical to the DC resistance of the shielding. With increasing frequencies and, depending on the structure, the behaviour is completely different. The attenuation of shielding for shielded symmetrical cable can only be determined by measurement. There are various different measuring methods, which are measuring frequency specific.

Abbreviation of polychloroprene and is made of polymerisation of 2-chlorobutadien.

Mechanical compression joint between conductor and metal sleeve, e.g. coaxial cable with the corresponding plugs has a metal sleeve pushed over the shielding and is crimped with the help of a crimping tool.

Insulation made of thermoplastic resin or a copolymer or a composite out of these materials, which molecular structure was changed through a chemical reaction like cross-linking or curing and/or physical process like irradiation. 

Irradiated is a practised method to optimise thermally resilient cables. Cross-linking improves the following properties of insulations and cable sheathings like higher operating temperature - resistance against welding splashes - improved tensile strength - improved flexural strength - improved oil resistance - improved ageing resistance. The radiation technology influences the radiation doses, absorbes radiation energy per unit of mass, and modification of the characteristics of the radiated product.

The influence of signals, in parallel running conductors, onto each other through electromagnetic coupling. Multi-paired communication: the field effects of the signal transmission of one pair induce an interfering signal onto the neighbouring pair. This interfering signal is frequency dependent and increases with rising frequency. The difference between the wanted signal and the measurable interfering signal of the neighbouring pair is called crosstalk attenuation (NEXT).  

Canadian Standards Association (technical testing organisation, Canada)

The current carrying capacity is defined as the current, which can be transmitted by a conductor prior to melting of the conductor or insulation. The heat which is generated by the flow of the electrical current through the conductor, determines the current which can flow through the conductor. A multitude of factors restrict the current carrying capacity of a conductor. The most important factors are: The conductor cross-section; as the greater the cross-section the greater the current carrying capacity. Insulation: The generated temperature should not exceed the maximum permitted temperature of the insulation material. Amount of conductors: The generation of heat is reduced if the amount of individual insulated bundled conductors are increased. 

Data cable is the general term for transmission medium of information and communication technology, e.g. cable, wire, fibre optic cable, which build the connection between transmitter and receiver. Nowadays it is possible to handle all communication of trade and industry via data cable. Lines are categorised into class A to E. Simple data cables are made of two stranded copper conductors, whose dielectricum could be PE foam skin.   

See signal propagation speed

Direct current

Abbreviation is dB. Decibel is a non-dimensional numerical ratio. It is the tenth part of a BEL and is the common measuring unit for the attenuation of high frequency engineering.

Number of monomers which create a macromolecule.

German electrolytic copper for conduction purposes. DEL is the listing for 99.5% pure copper in €/100 kg.

Denmark Elektriska Materialkontroll, Denmark. Governmental Test and Certification Authority

The density is the ratio between mass and space of a body. The mass is m and the volume is V, so the ratio of density is p= m/V.

The DM stranding is made of two stranded pairs, whilst the star quad is stranded in layers. With this stranding it is possible, through suitable circuitry, to have multiple conversations simultaneously on the existing wire pairs (phantom circuit).

Ratio between true wattage and reactive power under constant wave (sinusoidal) voltage. Depends on capacity, frequency and the temperature of the conductor.

Non-insulated wire, which is in contact with a conductor or shielding.

The drain wire serves the direct electrical connection of the shielding with the reference potential. The drain wire should have a compact strand construction and the contact to the shielding must be provided. 

A drop cable is a connection cable between the station and the network. This cable connects the station with the transceiver.

Elastomeres are elastically mouldable plastics, which change shape by tensile or pressure loading, but afterwards they go back to their original shape. The difference to thermoplastics is that vulcanizates have no melting point nor melting range but that does not imply that they are stabile at high temperatures. Thermal decomposition takes place depending on temperature and duration of exposure.

Electromagnetic compatibility. The term EMC is defined in the ability of electrical equipment to operate satisfactorily in an electromagnetic surrounding and at the same time not influence other equipment. Every electrical equipment must be seen as a source and as a victim. The transmission of the interference takes place via coupling. The cable itself can be seen as source. The generation of interference must be reduced as far as possible so that operation of radio transmission and telecommunications can take place. It is possible, through suitable cable design to reduce or shield interfering signals, so that no negative effects are expected. Influencing factors are: -optical cover of the braiding - angle of twist - amount of braiding wires - combination of braiding and St-shielding and/or copper fleece. EMC views parallel placed single wires or flat cables as a bad solution and should be avoided if EMC problems occur. The data cable should always be layed separately and with a great distance from interfering  power cables.

Tinned enamelled wires are insulated with PUR lacquer. The advantage of enamelled wires lie in the low wall thickness of the following insulation.

Ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer-synthetic-rubber is a terpolymer elastomer with good ozone and ageing resistance, excellent electrical properties, resistant to cold, is suitable for peroxidically linking (rubber insulated cables and wires)

Ethylene-propylene-rubber, see EPDM

Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene is a fluorinated copolymer and is specially suitable for the Wire-Wrap-Technology. Poly(ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene) is a result of copolymerization of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene.

Ethylene-vinylacetate-copolymer is a group of copolymers and is manufactured with ethylene and vinylacetate. EVA shows a high thermal and ageing stability compared to other plastics.

Tape that is positioned underneath the sheathing or in the cavities of the conductor to help avoid longitudinal water ingress underneath the sheathing or through the conductor of the cable.

Extrinsic loss is the coupling attenuation of the radiated power caused by lack of or missing connections.  

Insulation, which is made either of a thermoplastic or thermoelastic material layer and is applied in an extrusion process. 

The extruder head consists of a heated head housing and a conically fitted quill. The extrudate is directed via the quill to the wire guide mandrel. The cardioid on the quill spreads the plastic melt evenly and with pressure onto the quill. The wire is conically inserted into the quill. Newer outer nozzles handle pressure adjustment with a longidudinal moveable nut. The older models move the quill to adjust the pressure. The extruder head is usually made of hardened steel. The material for the tools is either made of steel or stell with carbide inserts.

Extrusion is the continuous fusing of plastic moulding material and extruding through shaping nozzles in an extruder with subsequent cooling for the production of semi-finished products and end products, e.g. cable insulations or sheathings.   

Abbreviation for Flat Core Flat Cable

Fibre Distributed Data Interface: Interface for data which are transmitted via fibre optic cable. FDDI is a high-speed network technology based on the token ring. FDDI offers a transmission rate of 100 Mbit.

See PTFE/FEP

Highly precise round guide cylinder in which the optic fibre is inserted and fixed. Also cable sleeves for pressing of flexible wire ends; connection of single wires onto screw and spring-type terminals. 

The Fast Fourier Transformation is algorithm which states a mathematical variable process measured over a certain time period. Preferably used by cable manufacturing for the production of communication cables to avoid cable parameter fluctuations if they occur periodically. The production of modern cable products like coaxial cable require a constant monitoring of the cable diameter, the eccentricity and the capacity of the cable with regards to periodic fluctuations. The online analysis of these measurements in the frequency range poses as an efficient supervising tool for the recognition of periodic appearing irregularities by cable extrusions.

The field bus is a system of cables and field equipment like sensors and actuators are connected to its system for the purpose of communication with a control device.

Dummy cores for filling of cavities around wires of a multi conductor cable.

Describes the fire behaviour of a cable. It is classified as non-flammable, flame-retardant, normal flammability and easily inflammable.

The fire load is the energy which is released upon combustion of a cable. It is described in VDE 0108, part 1 and the datasheets fire load  (measuring unit kJ/kg).

Test for the determination of fire behaviour and classified into categories A, B and C in dependency to the total volume (litre).

It describes the flammability of cables exposed to flames. Materials with an oxygen index value above 27 are flame retardant and self-extinguishing. PE has an oxygen index value of 17 and burns like cotton.

Multi conductor cable, which contains wires or groups of wires in a parallel or flat arrangement.

Cable which requires flexibility during its operation. Materials and design used for its production meet these requirements.

Flexible energy conduits are an ideal solution for standardised applications. Cables are inserted into flexible round or flat profile and secured with adapters. For higher load a link-free and continuous extruding energy guiding system is used. Noise and vibration free. Application areas: small bridge cranes, optical systems, storage and retrieval machines, applications with high degree of soiling, gate-drives, handling techniques, refrigeration  technology. In addition to cables it is possible to use hoses (water, compressed air, oxygen, fuel gases, etc.). For robots, use in clean rooms, chemically and UV etc.. Suitable for indoors and outdoors.

The main advantages of foamed products are: small cable diameter but equal product characteristics - low material costs - weight reduction

Chemical foaming takes place through the addition of kick-start PE. The KF melt is foamed in the cylinder of the extruder. The foam protective layer (foam skin) is process-related by the chemical foaming. Note that the foaming level is limited. It can only be influenced through machine parameters like extruder temperature and cooling trough temperature and is around 5 pF.

It is possible to physically foam during the extruding process by adding nitrogen. The physical foaming takes place through a co-extruder, where a separate layer, depending on the wanted properties, can be used for extruding, i.e. Low Density PE (LDPE), Middle Density PE (MDPE) or High Density PE (HDPE). The maximum foaming rate is 70%.

Is a measuring unit derived from Joule and Kilogram. Defines the absorbed dose caused by ionised radiation and describes the absorbed energy per mass.   

Insulation material must be free of halogens like bromine, chlorine, fluorine and iodine. Halogen-free stipulates the absence of these elements.

Hawser are required as trailing cables with high -strength braiding. They are used for mining machines and heavy movable industrial machines. 

The depth of impression is measured under heat influence (standardised procedure).

Heat stabilizers prevent the decomposition of macromolecules under heat influence.

The insulation cover of wires is tested for heat shock. A wire is wrapped around a defined mandrel and kept at 150 degrees for 1 hour in a heated cabinet. After cooling down the test sample should not show any distinguishable cracks. 

A very important characteristic of winding wires is thermal resistance. It is defined in heat-resistant categories. Each category is assigned a continuous working temperature, by which the isolating material guarantees a durability of 25,000 operational hours.

Bundles of thin copper lacquer wires of any number are called high-frequency stands.

Insulation tests are carried out with the Hi-Pot Station™ to ensure that no potentially dangerous stray current from the cell circuits develop onto the open lying module surfaces.

Irreversible breakdown of the molecular chains occurs by longer storage in warm water, saturated steam or tropical climate.

The impact strength describes the ability of a material to absorb impact energy without breaking. The impact strength is the ratio of impact energy and sample cross-section (unit kJ/m²).  

See wave impedance

The inductance is defined in electrical engineering as inductive reactance or inductive ac resistance.

The printing with diverted continuous ink-jet makes it possible to mark, label or date a product contactless. An ink-jet exits out of a nozzle which is part of the printer head. This jet is modulated via the piezoelectric transformer, located behind the nozzle, so that an even breakup of the drops is achieved (Rayleigh-Taylor-Instability). With the help of a charging electrode the formed drops are more or less electrostatically charged. The 10 to 40 m/s fast drops fly through a bigger deflection electrode, where, depending on their specific electrical load, they get sidetracked. Depending on the equipment type only the charged or uncharged drops get to the cable. Not needed drops are caught on the printer head and reused in the ink circulation. The width of the row depends on the distance of the nozzle to the cable, whereas a greater distance reduces the resolution. The symbols which are applied by the printer head is called text. The text can be letters and numbers, different alphabets and various fonts or logos and drawings. Each written text is saved and, if required, can be printed or changed.

Non-metallic sheath applied to offer pressure protection or reinforcement.

Conductive layer made of non-metal and/or metallic material covering the conductor.

Interface is a transmission point between different hardware units.

Intrinsically safe cables (VDE 0165) for use in rooms at risk of explosion. The cables must have a blue outer sheating as marking.

Combination of one or more wires, if applicable, with individual shields, sheaths, reinforcing elements, protective covering. Additional non-insulated conductors can be integrated into the cable.

Insulation material covering the conductor can be divided between materials for electrical insulation and in sheathing material protecting it from outside influences.

Insulation materials place high resistances onto the electrical current flow. It is reverse proportional to the cable length. The insulation resistance is a value for the quality of the insulation material between two conductors or between one conductor and a shielding. The insulation material determines the insulation resistance. The insulation thickness is not as crucial as the material characteristics. The insulation resistance depends on the cable length and is measured in Ohm x m or GOhm x km. The measurement should be around 1 GOhm x km. The insulation resistance drops with lengths of longer distances.

Various waves in a room are overlaid (Two waves of the same amplitudes and same phase strengthen themselves. If wavelengths are moved against each other then they are erased.)

Multi conductor cable with a shield, which is arranged concentric towards the cable axis and wires.

Non-metal cover covering the stranded wires (including interstitial dummy elements) of a multi conductor cable and where the protective cover is applied on top.

1000 Gy = 1 kGy (see Gy/Gray)

The K-value is a measurement for the average polymerisation grade (average length of the PVC molecules). A higher K-value indicates longer PVC molecules, which also entails better mechanical properties of the cable but at the same time the processing of the cable gets more difficult. A K-value of 70 or 65 is a good compromise between physical characteristics and still satisfactory processing characteristics.

The lace bobbin machine produces plied wire from the single wires for the braiding or D-winding.

Axial length of a complete twist of a cable structural element.

Left or right lay of a stranded core of a cable or conductor.

Ratio of the lay length to the diameter of a structural element.

Through the helical stranding the stranded stranding element is shorter. The to be stranded elements must be longer as the finished cable.  

Lift for transport and industrial buildings. Production areas: passenger lifts, bed lifts, glass and panoramic lifts, freight lifts and building hoists. Combination cables for modern transmission systems are used depending on the application area. Audio, video, telephone, emergency call systems, bus systems, etc. can be included in these control cables. Each lift manufacturer uses specifically designed cables. Legal standards and regulations must be adhered to in all product areas. 

The liquids temperature is the limit temperature of soldering, where the tin solder is present as melting.

Temperature  </= 450 degrees = soft soldering. Temperature >/= 450 degrees = hard soldering.

Abbreviation for "Local Operating Network" • LON, also called LONWORKS® is a universal automation network developed by Echelon Corporation, Palo Alto, USA. These days it is used in buildings and industry automations worldwide. The LON-network makes it possible for 10,000 sensors and actuators to be connected to an integrated building automatisation (similar to EIB). 

Damage to the protective sheathing of earth cables can result in water ingress. Through the longitudinal spreading of the water long cable sections could become unusable. To avoid this happening swellable material is incorporated between the stranded bundle and sheathing. Swelling powder or petroleum jelly are used as swellable materials. 

The sum of the DC resistances of 2 wires (forward and return line of a main circuit).

Relation of effective power to idle power by sinusoidal voltages. The loss factor is dependent on the temperature, capacity and frequency.

It is differentiated between inner and outer lubricants. Lubricants are preferably used on the outside to avoid sticking to metal surfaces of the extruder and the surface gloss is improved.

See lacquer wetting substances

The plastic processor needs to guarantee the processing of the moulding mass has a consistent quality (rheology). The most important parameter of a plastic moulding mass is the flowability of the melt, which should be homogeneous in a batch. The melt index states the mass in grams of a thermoplastic melt, which is pushed through a standardised nozzle in 10 min with defined piston force and temperature.

Mega Hertz = 1 Million oscillations per second

Thermoplastic polyurethane made of a polyester base without additional microbial protection, is subject to risk of material degradation by microbial attack. Humidity in combination with warmth (e.g. farming, grass, foliage, etc.) can accelerate this process. In such surroundings microorganisms grow quickly and the released enzymes cause the ester bonds to break resulting in detritions of the plastic. it is common to notice a punctilio damage compared to hydrolytic degradation, which occurs on the entire surface (see safonification number). Polyurethane based on polyester is mainly resistant towards microbial attack but displays less good mechanical properties compared to polyester-polyurethane.

If soft-PVC is in contact with other substances, like lacquers and plastics, then the plasticizer can migrate to the material in contact. The plasticzer only migrates if the material in contact is compatible for migration, if not then no migration will take place. The plasticizer migration depends on the temperature and pressure.

Abbreviation for Military Specification, Military Standard (USA)

Insulation consisting of a pressed mineral powder.

A modem is used to exchange digital signals over long transmission paths between two digital terminal equipments. From the transmitting modem a digital signal (due to voltage change) is modulated onto a carrier frequency in the high frequency range. The receiving modem uses the original information through demodulating into an analogue electrical signal (a result of amplitude fluctuations). Modern modems with DSL standards work on higher carrier frequencies greater band widths on the telecom cable compared to the previous standard (narrow band).

Molecular weight defines the sum of atomic weight of all atoms in a molecule. Mechanical robustness, solvability and stretching amongst other things are dependent of the molecular weight.

Cable drums with motor are used as a power supply line for mobile users with automated winding up of flexible energy and control cables. Application areas: harbours, steel work, open-cat mine, theatre, etc. The drums are available as spiral or cylindrical winding. The cable drums apply according to VDE and UVV regulations. The cable withdrawal happens horizontally or vertically and is manufactured with different motors due to its application.  High voltage power lines can be facilitated up to 20kV (with or without fibre optic cable)

Sheath manufactured by extrusion of more than two layers of suitable material, which are connected with each other in a permanent and inseparable way.

Three wire cable with concentric conductor planned to function as neutral conductor.

Stranded conductor consisting of an amount of groups of wires arranged in helically wound layers, where each group is either chocked or stranded.

Cable with more than one wire.

See crosstalk attenuation.

The nominal voltage of a cable is the voltage related to the assembly and testing of a cable during the electrical testing.

U0: Effective value of the voltage between outer conductor and earth.
U: Effective value of the voltage between two outer conductors of a multiple or four wire cable or a system of single wire cables in a three-phase network.

Copper with a purity grade of 99.5%.

Symbol is Ω. Unit for the electrical resistance. The Ohm's law defines that the electrical current (ampere) is directly proportional to the voltage (volt) and is reverse proportional to the electrical resistance (Ohm). Ampere= Volt/Ohm. 

Operating voltage is the voltage of an electrical circuit in volts, which is required for its operation. It is the actual current in the net. It can change by about 5% through variable use by the electricity consumer.    

Conductor made of non-metal and /or metal, which is covering the insulation.

One or more non-extruding layers on the exterior of a cable.

Insulated cable used for overhead installation on masts, telecommunications and sometimes for electric energy. Overhead cables are used as telephone cables in peripheral areas, on building sites or similar temporary installations.

Overhead lines are non-insulated electrical conductors and used for inter-urban electricity transmission of electrical energy.

High voltage cables for neon tubes, spark plugs and X-ray tubes produce ozone through high electrical field strengths. It will especially corrode the insulation by additional mechanical use (crack formation). Ozone is a  bond of three oxygen atoms (O³). It is produced under the effects of high-energy UV radiation by using the oxygen present in the air. Through its structure ozone is very reactive and reacts easily with organic substances. This can be avoided with ozone resistant materials. Very good examples are: EPDM or butyl rubber. 

Polyamide originates from polycondensation of amino carboxylic acids or diamines with dicarboxylic acids.

Paint wetting impairment substances : PWIS-free is a term mainly used in the automobile industry. The presence of various substances like silicone oil creates unwanted crater formations in the lacquer during lacquering of the car bodies. If through traces of silicone oil on tools the lacquer does not stick to the new cars then craters will develop. If the result is a closed lacquer film then the material is free of paint wetting impairment substances (PWIS-free). This matter is very important to the industry as great costs occur if production lines need to be stop because of PWIS.

Polyethylene is made of polymerisation of ethene [CH2=CH2] manufactured thermoplastic resin with the simplified chain structure formula. Polyethylene belongs to the group of polyolefins. Through substitution of hydrogen polyvinyl is created, e.g. polyvinylchloride. Polyethylene is produced of ethylene gas. It has a low water absorption and shows good electrical and dielectrical properties.

Gas passing through a test body is called permeation. It is carried out in three steps: Dissolving of the gas in the test body / diffusion of the dissolved gas through the test body / evaporation of the gas out of the test body.

Abbreviation for polyethylene terephtalate. This plastic displays universal characteristics with very good electrical characteristics, thermical behaviour and very good mechanical stability. Another excellent property its resistance towards plasticizer migration.  

Material with cream-like structure (Vaseline) extracted from crude oil and used to produce longitudinal water tight cable.

Polyimides are polycondensation products of tetrabasic aromatic acids and aromatic diamines.

Plasticizer influence the bendability, extensibility and elasticity module. It means that it reduces the intermolecular strength so that the mobility of the molecules becomes greater.

Macromolecules are attached through reactive groups to each other.

Interlinking of monomers under splitting of by-products. Different monomers are linked with the reactive end-groups under splitting of water or ammonia.

Polyethylene terephalates are linear saturated polyester (thermoplastics) with high resistance to stress cracking and are resistant to water absorption.

Monomers interlinked without creation of by-products. The monomer, gaseous or liquid starting products connect under splitting of the unsaturated double bond to threadlike molecules.

Polypropylene, like polyethylene, belongs to the group of polyolefins. Produced through polymerisation of propene (polypropylene).

With this process the insulation of the core takes place under pressure in a moulding machine. The core experiences various pressure components and this method is used for cables, which require sheathing applied under pressure. This is mainly the case for the primary insulation, where adherence of the insulator to the wire is wanted.

Propagation speed is the rate of transmission of the electrical energy through the length of the cable, compared to the speed of light in free-space.

Prussic acid (= hydrocyanic acid) is a colourless to light yellowish, flammable, volatile and water soluble liquid.

Polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE is a high-temperature resistant plastic that is resistant to solvents and aggressive chemicals. It displays no changes in properties after contact with most chemicals. Its surface is so smooth and slipable that hardly any foreign substances stick to it. Neither humidity nor UV-rays change the volume or cause weathering/brittleness. Produced through pyrolysis of difluorochloromethane.

Polytetrafluoroethylene /perfluoroethylenepropylene are insulation materials with exceptionally good electrical, thermical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Constant temperatures up to 205 degrees and application temperatures down to -90 degrees allow a large area of operation. Fluorocarbon resins are virtually resistant towards all chemicals, especially strong acids and alkalines, solvents and hydrocarbons like they appear in fules. FEP and PTFE are flame-resistant and can be seen as virtually non-flammable. Material properties are not influence by sun light, UV rays and sea water.

Electrical spark discharge by which insulation gets damaged, the electricity flows through the insulator. In this case the voltage is higher than the dielectric strength of the insulation material.

Thermoplastic polyurethane TPU is a high-performance material with a unique combination of useful properties. PUR cables are weather resistant in all climate zones. A yellowing of the light colours under the influence of the sun is possible, but does not change the performance of the cable. Sheathing made of TPU polyester is preferred for outside use and subsoil installation of cables. For lighter sheathing colours a higher UV-protection is required and this is possible by adding a UV-protective-stabilisator-concentrate.

Polyvinylchloride is a amorphous thermoplastic resin. PVC is hard and brittle and only becomes soft after addition of plasticizer and stabilizers. It is mouldable and useable for technical applications (very good price quality ratio for plastics).   

Polyvinylidene fluoride: Through reaction of trichloroethylene with hydrogen fluoride and subsequent reaction with zinc 1,1 difluoroethylene is produced. It will further be polymerised to polyvinylidene fluoride. 

Abbreviation for paint wetting impairment substances. See also LABS.

Controlled combustion excluding oxygen.

Arrangement of a flexible cable or a cord, connected with an unpluggable plug and female connector, which are intended for the connection of electrical equipment to the current supply. 

Conductor or single wire cable, which is parallel laid to a cable or cable circuit and it is part of a closed circuit itself in which induced currents can flow. Its magnetic field is opposed to the field, which is caused by the current of the cable/ conductor.  

Irregularities in the cable and maladjustments cause reflections of parts of the transferred energy. A returning wavelength which, depending on the size of the interference, can lower the effective output and transmission quality. 

The relative static permittivity is used to define how much greater the capacity of a capacitator is with a defined insulating material compared to the same capacitator with air as a dielectric.

The electrical resistance is a unit for the electrical voltage, which is required to let electrical current flow through an electrical conductor. R is used as symbol. The resistance has the SI unit Ohm and its symbol is Ω. The specific electric resistance, symbol ρ. The value depends on the temperature of the matter constant, which allows a description of the resistance characteristics independent of the geometrical form of the conductor. R = resistance [W]  /  p = specific resistance [W*mm²/m]  /  l = length of the conductor [m]  /  A = cross-section [mm²].

Resistin is a copper-manganese-iron alloy. It is an electrical resistor material.

The definition return loss for metallic cable means the ratio of input energy to backscattered energy. Such backscattered energies appear through inhomogeneities within the cable or the HF connector. Part of the signal energy is reflected and spreads in the cable into the opposite direction. This part of the signal energy is put in relation to the input signal level. The relation is the return loss and is stated in dB (decibel) and is in direct relationship with the Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR).

Abbreviation for radio guide utility. Military name for coaxial cables.

Ring printing is used for the clear marking of wires in a cable. The colour code is determined by DIN 47100 or through a customer-specific code.

The rodent protection offers protection for inner and outer cable against rodent bites. It is also applicable for electrical cable, coaxial cable and fibre optic cable. There are non-metallic and metallic protective designs available. For metallic rodent protection the cable is put through a metallic cover in the form of a protected layered sheathing. The non-metallic is achieved through nylon or polyester coating of the cable or with glass roving underneath the sheathing.   

Abbreviation of Restriction of Hazardous Substances. It regulates the use of dangerous substances in equipment and component parts and is defined in EG-directive 2002/95/EG.

Society of Automotive Engineers is the American Standards Institution for the transport technology. The SAE also created a standard for the terms of the viscosity of lubricants.

The saponification number was specified to estimate the resistance against microorganisms. Absolute resistance against the phenomenon of the microorganism infestation is applicable to saponification number sap 200. Definition of the saponification number according to specification DIN VDE 0472 part 704. It represents the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide required to saponify 1g of fat under the conditions specified. Abbreviation is sap .

A measurement technology and unit was created in order to measure this shielding. The measuring unit is given in dB (decibel) and is called screening attenuation. It is the relationship of voltages and currents to each other. To get a feeling for the performance-ratio of the screening attenuation of 30dB means that 1,000th part of the transmitted performance in a cable is emitted to the outside. For 50dB it is only the 100,000th part. The attenuation becomes more difficult the higher the performance. Antenna cable must display a high shielding rating so that the received lower voltage is not overlaid by the interfering radiation. Transmitters are to shield so that they emit no interference fields and receivers are to shield so that no interference can be received. The best results are achieved by using closed shielding designs (wrapping with metal foil and additional braiding). High shielded cable with non-suitable plugs erase the complete screening attenuation.  

Shaped conductor, whose cross-section is close to a sector of a circle.

Stranded conductor, which consists of several profiled stranded conductors, that are against each other lightly insulated.

Liquid agent that is dropped into the wires during extrusion  and functions as a separation sheathing/liquid between wire insulation and sheathing. Through its application there is no adhesion between wires or with the sheathing.

Thin layer avoiding negative influences between different  elements of the cable, e.g. between conductors and insulation or insulation and sheathing.

SEV Association for Electrical Engineering, Power and Information Technologies

Conductor with non-circular cross-section.

The shear modulus is a material parameter, supplying information about linear elastic deformation of a component partly caused by shear force or shear stress. Whilst the shore hardness and the brittle point temperature give information about the stiffness at certain temperatures the shear modulus (torsion) gives us the flexible behaviour at these temperatures.

Outer insulation cover of a cable with one or more shielded or unshielded wires.

Conductive sheathing of one or more wires to be protected from electromagnetic or electrostatic interferences.

Voltage in relation to earth, which occurs on the shielding of a cable with special-shielding connection, if symmetrical-load-current-flow in the conductors flow. Commonly specified on the points of the cable where the maximum shows (which means the unearthed part of a base section in case of unilateral grounding and on a cross-point in case of out-crossing). If the voltage for the three outer conductors is different the highest value is used.

Silicon rubber: Silicones and polymers on the basis of polydiorganosiloxanen.

The signal propagation speed depends on the transmission medium and is lower than the speed of light. The lowering of the speed is caused by a so called reducing factor (NVP). The reducing factor for coaxial cable is 0.77, for twisted cable 0.6 and for fibre optic cable 0.67. That means that the signal propagation speed in e.g. coaxial cable is 77% of the speed of light. For fibre optic cables propagation speed is expressed for different wavelengths of the group velocity. 

Single wire cable with a concentric conductor, used as a neutral conductor.

Uniform cross-sectional metal wire for the production of conductors or shieldings.

Single wire with a thin metal coating to improve the characteristics or contactability (plated single-wire)

A skin/layer is required for a very small wire diameter to improve foam structure and tight fit. The outer skin/layer protects the porous foam structure against humidity ingress and other substances. The skin protects the sensitive foam of outside mechanical impact. The better resistance of the foam/skin wire prevents changes to electrical properties caused by dents to the braiding, which can happen over time. See foaming chemical.

Smoke density - IEC 61034-1 / CENELEC HD 606: Is a very important property related to the fire behaviour and smoke development of a material. The plastics used in the cable technology are strong smoke generators. These properties can only be reduced through additives. The smoke is measured using the 3m Kubus Test according to IEC 61034-1 or CENELEC HD 606. In a cubic space with a photometric system and light source (100W) with a selenium photocell. A printer, which is connected to the photocell, records the light attenuation of the burning test sample --> see table

The spark test is a flow pass voltage test during manufacturing.

The specific contact resistance is the electrical resistance of the material inside, measured between two electrodes and related to the material geometry.

The specific weight is the ratio of weight of a body to its volume or the density of a body in relation to the density of water.

The volume of the spool can be calculated with: F = V /d² x 1.1 : F= volume in metres per ring, drum or spool / V= usable volume in dm³ of the ring, drum or spool / d= average outer diameter of the winding material.

Spring cable reels with spring drive are used as electricity supplier for portable consumers of flexible energy and control cables. Application areas: gantry and slewing crane, onboard crane, mobile crane, building crane, loading installations, magnet and grab crane, e-trains, travelling and lifting platform, forklift, cleaning equipment for sewage plants, feeding plants, palletizing systems, storage and retrieval machines, ships, aggressive conditions, ex-rooms, etc.The cable reel conforms to VDE and UVV rules.

Layer-stranded with 4 wires (worse capacity values as DM quad). Low capacity construction of four stranded core wires. The capacity between the pairs of a star quad is 1.5 times higher than by the DM quad.

Special elements which take on tensile forces in the sheathing area.

Unit made of multiple single wires arranged helically in the same direction of lay and lay length.

Lacquer bound strands are used mainly for flat band cables as they are very compact and due to good manufacturing allow better compliance to the manufacturing tolerances.

Application area is mainly for medical cable. They are made of polyester fibres with flattened copper - highly flexible - high tensile strength.

Stranded conductor, whose single wires are arranged randomly helically wound in the same direction and lay length.

Unit made of multiple single wires, which is arranged in helical and even layers. The direction of lay of following wire layers are either changing or unchanging. The lay length of the individual layers can be different or equal.

Conductor, which consists of multiple single wires or strands, where all or some are arranged helically. The cross-section of the stranded conductor can be circular or profiled. 

Cable made from stranded, insulated conductors or stranded single-wire cables without common sheathing. 

The stranding is a process where an amount of stranding elements are combined around a common axis. It requires mutual twisting to avoid the combined units falling apart. Stranding elements can be: single wire - yarn / fibre optic cable - metal wire / braid - metal segment. The stranding procedure makes the handling of the elements easier. Terms like bendable and flexible are used. Bending and flexibility are mainly stated through the twisting pitch „S + Z“ in mm.

Relation of the lay length to the diameter of the stranding element.

The rotation is carried out from the stranding cage by the cage stranding machine. The necessary lengthwise movement is carried out by pull-off equipment. The stranding elements are turned before the stranding nipple by the cage stranding machine.

Cavities between the  stranding elements are not wanted as they increase the following production steps and material use. The requirement to keep the stranding diameter as small as possible is achieved by the stranding nipple. Sometimes a stranding nipple is not enough. Materials for stranding nipples are Ø     metal  /  Ø    ceramics  /  Ø     plastics.

The stranding  is a result of the interaction of a twisting and length movement. The twisting motion generates the laying of the stranding elements around the stranding axis/core element. The length movement generates the forward movement of the core and stranding elements, called take-off and the take-off speed is calculated like:    V =   S  ·  N x 1000  /  V= take-off speed in m/min  /  S= twisting pitch in mm  /  N= cage rotation / min. By a bundle of parallel lying stranding elements, tied at both ends, the outer stranding elements are stretched and the inner stranding elements compressed. Because of the stranding process the stranding elements are outside and inside so they experience both stretching and compressing resulting in no deformation of the stranding takes place.

Back twist is used to have no additional twist tension in the strand, which means that no back-twist is wanted (torsion-free). Back-twist is the tension force which acts on the strand after stranding.  It is caused by the twisting tension, which the stranding elements experience during the entire process. For some stranding elements this lowers the quality. Back-twist is generated wherever movement between unwinding and winding exists.

Standing with rigidly fixed reel supports on the cage is called stranding without back twist.

By the Lang's lay stranding procedure does not change the stranding direction from stranding layer to stranding layer.

By the ordinary lay stranding procedure the stranding direction changes from stranding layer to stranding layer.

SBR is a copolymer made of butadiene and styrene. It was the first used synthetic rubber. Characteristics are: good mechanical strength with no resistance towards solvents. It is used e.g. as insulation material for communication cable.

Wire or rope, whose primary function is too carry an cable (dead weight), e.g. for a overhead cable it can be used separately to the cable or integrated into the cable.

Method to optimise the surface properties. The surface properties can be of a functional protection (oxidation protection, protection from the influence of sea water, environmental impacts, e.g. subtropical and tropical areas, medium resistance to acids, oils and alkalis, soldering aids etc.) as well as decorative protection (colour, gloss effects and designs, if required) . A combination of both is also possible. It is common for this process to entail multiple steps to achieve the required result.

The surface resistance (also bleeder resistor) is the surface resistance of a test body. It is the electrical resistance, which is opposed to the current flow between two electrodes positioned on the surface of a isolator. The specific surface resistance (surface resistance according to ISO 93) is the resistance of a square test area, which means that length and distance of the electrodes agree. The size not only depends on the insulation but also on the air humidity, impurities on top of the surface and measurement setup. For the measuring a standardised arrangement must be used. It is inevitable that during the measuring of the surface resistance the contact resistance is also measured to a non-quantified amount, hence the results cannot be transferred onto another geometry. The measuring unit of the surface resistance and the specific surface resistance is Ohm (1 Ω = 1 VA-1).

Material that is positioned underneath the sheathing or in the cavities of the conductor to help avoid longitudinal water ingress underneath the sheathing or through the conductor of the cable.

Powder that is positioned underneath the sheathing or in the cavities of the conductor to help avoid longitudinal water ingress underneath the sheathing or through the conductor of the cable.

Outer shielding especially pair shielding is used for high transmission rates. At the cable exit of the signal receiver  the partial signals of both conductors are added up giving the total signal. With this addition the interfering signals, in both single conductors, are nullified so that only the wanted signal is available. In that way the symmetric transmission principal is insensitive towards outer interfering influences.   

Talcum: mineral, light greasy natural product and is used powdery as a separating agent. This results in a light stripping of the insulation. For extruding of the sheathing talcum is used as a separating agent and applied directly onto the wires. In this way the wires will not stick to each other and to the sheathing. No talcum use for medicine, clean room cables and cables which must not contain lacquer wetting inhibiting substances.

Taping is the process of wrapping fleece, plastic foil, steel tape and other materials around a pair of wires, strands of wires, etc.

Tear resistance is the terminology for a notched body resisting further tearing. The test is carried out on angle-specimen samples, which are provided with an incision.

If no temperature information is given through imprinting a temperature tracer thread can be added.

Elastic materials can only be used in the elastic sector (Hook's law) without permanent deformation. Only in this range the material goes back to its original state. By overstretching the Hook's range a residual elongation remains and the greater the residual elongation the longer it takes.

Through addition of additives the thermal resistance of insulating material is guaranteed.

The test voltage is the voltage value by which a cable can be tested with and where no changes to the insulation properties will occur. The test voltage is chosen to be 3-5 times higher than the nominal voltage.

The fineness of fibres is determined with the fineness of the TEX system. TEX is the fineness of a fibre, which shows 1 gram of weight by 1000m. For example polyester silk 7 TEX = 1000m silk weighs 7 grams.

Cable with conductor, which differs in material or properties of the termoelement, but has such thermoelectrical properties that the resulting error for a given temperature range is within defined tolerances.

Cable with conductors of the same kind as the thermal element which exendens the cable to the measuring point and with the same thermoelectric characteristics within the entire application temperature range of the cable.

Thermal expansion is the change to geometrical dimensions (length, area, volume) of a material caused by a temperature change affecting its makeup. The reverse process is called heat shrinkage. Plastics are subject to a temperature depending on reversible length variation. It is specified as thermal  coefficient of linear thermal expansion a[1/K].

Cable with conductors of the same kind as the thermal element which exendens the cable to the measuring point and with the same thermoelectric characteristics within the entire application temperature range of the cable.

Temperature difference between the inner and outer surface of a cable stranding element divided by the heat flow passing through.

Filling material, whose thermal properties are chosen so that the transfer of heat from the cable can be eased. 

Thermo and balancing cables are used in temperature test equipment as an electrical connection between the open ends of a thermopair and the reference point. In many cases the termo or balancing cables are led up to the measuring equipment.

High polymer material which displays a strong dependency on the viscosity from the temperature due to linear chain structures of the macro molecules. These plastics melt by raising the temperature and exceeding the softening point, are warm mouldable and after cooling down set again. This process can be repeated as often as it is required. Compared to thermosetting plastics no chemical reaction occurs during manufacturing. Important thermoplastics are e.g. polyamide, polystyrene and polyethylene.

Thermosetting plastics are plastics which can be initially moulded in through heat-treatment and with a further heat-treatment are irreversibly hardened. The hardening is a result of a large frequency of cross-linking between the various molecule chains.

Metal-coated conductor whose coating material is tin.

Tracer threads are incorporated into the product to clearly identify the manufacturer. This is especially important if the marking is not sufficient enough otherwise. Examples are company tracer threads VDE, SEV,UL, etc.

A tracking comes from the advanced path on top of a surface of a solid insulating material. It is caused by electrical use and electrolytic contamination on the surface (see also CTI).    

The transceiver is the active component of an Ethernet-LAN for the connection to end equipment to the electric bus cable with functions for collision detection and signal adjustment. The word transceiver is a combination word of transmitter and receiver. It carries out monitoring, forward, receiving and interference functions. 

This cable connects the transceiver with the Stations Interface Unit on the Ethernet. It is restricted to a length of 50m and the cable impedance is 78 Ohm.

The trixial cable is a special form of coaxial cable that consists of three concentric conductors. These are separated from each other through a dielectricum as well as a shielding. Application areas are video technology and electrical measurement technology. It is possible to measure currents of femtoamperes range with a suitable construction by use of trixial cables. Because of the higher manufacturing efforts the cable is more expensive than coaxial cable.

Trunk cables are the main supply cable in the broadband system. They are coaxial designed high-frequency cables, which go from the Head-End-Station to the customer connections. These cables have a diameter of one to two centimetres. The outer layer forms a solid plastic sheathing under which an aluminium under-sheathing is placed. Within this aluminium sheathing the power supply of the active components is used and the number of required stabile supplies can be reduced to the supply points.

See lay length

UL= Underwrites Laboratories - Standardizing body of the USA / UR: Underwriters Laboratories Recognised - identification that from UL approved products the UL standard can be applied. cUR = Identification which is applied onto products conforming to the CSA standards and the testing and approbation are processed over UL. Approbations are given after testing of cable samples by UL. Regular tests through UL inspectors secure the conformance of the standards. The place for UL in Europe is DEMKO responsible for approbations, tests, etc. cUR symbols: UL has agreed a mutual recognition with CSA, resulting in CSA approbations being carried out by UL and the inspections for CSA being carried out by UL. If a cable complies with the CSA standard and the approbation is given the product can be labelled cUR (recognized product of CSA).

The responsible manufacturer must label his product in such a manner that the manufacturer and production site can be identified. For a company identification  two methods are valid: 1. Manufacturer's identification thread  and 2. surface printing.

Same stranding direction of all layers.

Concentric stranding on consecutive layers with uniform lay directions and the same lay length.

PUR has a good UV-resistance. Between the different PUR kinds PUR FHF (flame-retardant and halogen-free) has the best resistance. PUR FHF coloured black is possibly the best UV resistant in the PUR-sector.

After testing of cable samples approbation is given. Regular testing through VDE inspections ensures the keeping of standards. Products which meet the standards of the approbation are allowed to be marked with the VDE symbol according to the approbation. Audits to the manufacturing sites, product controls, and regular manufacturing inspections are the requirements of the keeping of the approbation.

Four in metal foil (ViMF=German abbreviation) is the German terminology for STP-cables with two twisted-pair wire cables, which are shielded through metal-foil. The way of stranding can be carried out as star quad or two twisted-pair conductors.

Measuring unit for the actual power output which is required for the application. The actual power output is the product of the effective values of voltage and power consumption of the operating equipment. P (VA) = U(V) x I (A).

Cross-linked polyethylene, see also cross-linking.

Water-treeing takes place when an electrical field and water simultaneously meet. Water-trees are tree-shaped, in the direction of the field gradient growing structures causing irreversible damage of the cable dielectricums. See also ageing/chemical. 

Wire with insulation as part of one or multiple wire cable.

The transmission properties of this conductor have very narrow defined tolerances, which cannot be achieved with a stranded conductor.

Are combined through a different power supply and media supply system. Workstations are equipped with different workstation equipment combined with specialised accessories like track systems, cantilever arms, tool carrier, cable rewinders, hose rewinder, balancer, hoist devices and common tools. Flat and round cables with, or without strain relief, are used for workstation systems. 

Insulation made of helical wound concentric layers around the conductor.

X-ray cables are flexible connection cables with rubber insulation. The single wires are embedded into the common rubber insulation. Another layer of natural rubber is applied onto this rubber sheathing, which acts as main insulation. Onto the braiding textile-tape is applied. 

Central bounded solderability. Tinned copper wires, which are bound with a solderable lacquer (soldering flux). ZGL-SC are build like ZGL but with steel rope, TC= Topcoat. Bare Cu-wires, which are hot-dip tinned, i.e. are pulled through a soldering bath.

Central Association of Electrotechnology and Electronic Industries)

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